A relative newcomer that was only founded in 2014, ConvertKit has taken the world of email marketing by storm. According to the company, they now have nearly 20,000 active customers of their email services. Their affiliate program works by paying existing customers a lifetime 30 percent commission for referrals that subsequently become ConvertKit customers or who sign up for ConvertKit webinars and other digital products.


If you’re in the WordPress industry like I am (whether it be design, development, or SEO) I have accumulated quite the list of WordPress affiliate programs. I excluded those I found unsuccessful or pay too little to make a profit from, specifically ThemeForest, Creative Market, and low quality theme stores like Template Monster. Hosting pays well and I wrote a tutorial for SiteGround’s affiliate program and StudioPress themes which are my 2 highest paying affiliates. Those tutorials have tons of screenshots/social proof especially for SiteGround.
You Don’t Need To Track Affiliate Links To Improve Conversions – you will always hear people telling you to track affiliate links. But for me, I generally use the same content about SiteGround on all my speed optimization articles… it is very important it converts well. Change your approach on how you recommend your affiliate product (it’s perfecting your sales pitch).
Can you make money with affiliate marketing? The short answer is yes, affiliate programs can earn a extra money and even a full-time income from home. The long answer is a little more complicated. Like any home income venture, success comes not so much from what you choose to do to make money, but whether or not you do what needs to be done correctly and consistently.
There are several types of affiliate programs. Most will pay you a flat rate or percentage of the sale you make (pay-per-sale). Another common type is when you're paid per action or lead. For example, if you refer someone who signs up for businesses free trial, the business pays you for the sign-up. Although not seen as often anymore, some will pay you per click (this is seen most in contextual ad programs such as Google Adsense) or per impression (each time the ad is loaded on your website).
To help save your time, I’m going to just tell you what program I think works best and the program that I am STILL a part of to this very day. After months of searching, I got a recommendation from a friend to check out Wealthy Affiliate. Needless to say, I was pretty blown away by it. They offer every tool you’ll need to grow your business and they train you on how to use all those tools. You will also get access to their training which gives you all the information you need to know in the order you need to know it in.
Because users have different operating systems, web browsers[84] and computer hardware (including mobile devices and different screen sizes), online ads may appear to users differently from how the advertiser intended, or the ads may not display properly at all. A 2012 comScore study revealed that, on average, 31% of ads were not "in-view" when rendered, meaning they never had an opportunity to be seen.[85] Rich media ads create even greater compatibility problems, as some developers may use competing (and exclusive) software to render the ads (see e.g. Comparison of HTML 5 and Flash).
Many business owners first engage in internet marketing because they feel it is something they need to do to keep up with the times. Since the average American spends 23 hours per week engaging in some form of online communication, these business owners have a point. However, focusing on the tremendous audience created by the amount of people who are online or use social media prevents business owners from seeing some of the other benefits that internet marketing provides for a company. This blog post will show some of the ways that effective internet marketing can increase the profit margin for a business.

The key to getting the most out of your social media marketing is to strategically choose which channels you plan to invest your time, money, and effort in. Not sure which social media channels are right for you? Check out our post on the best social media platforms for your business to find out more about each channel and how it can benefit you based on your target audience and goals.
Unlike traditional marketing, internet marketing is easy to start and quick to implement. You can easily set up a marketing campaign at any time that is convenient for you. In fact, you can set up email marketing for your business within only a matter of hours. Within the next few minutes, you can setup an autoresponder and create a marketing list for your business.
Majority of organizations, especially in the micro, little and medium scale ventures are as yet sticking to traditional marketing frameworks for promoting their product and services. They’re stuck with the same campaigns year end and year out, and as expected get a similar level, if not declining, brings about a quickly advancing and organized commercial center. The individuals who have seen and understood the esteem and capability of Digital Marketing have changed their advertising and deals crusades to concentrate on internet marketing channels.
Conversion tracking is a necessary skill for affiliate marketing. This is where you track how much traffic you are getting alongside how much are converting into sales. At the end of the day, it is not about how high your website is ranking or how many visitors you have. It is the sales that matters. This course takes you through the basics of conversion tracking so that you can learn to maximize conversions for your website.
Want your content to go viral? Who doesn't! It takes a thoughtful, integrated approach to make content that stands out in our increasingly oversaturated world. In this fourth course of the Social Marketing Specialization - "Content, Advertising & Social IMC" - you will learn how marketers are successfully navigating today's media landscape. You will learn why developing engaging content for your audience is an essential component in effective social marketing. A panel of experts will unlock the paid/owned/earned media riddle and replace it with an integrated who/what/where approach that utilizes platform-specific messaging to grow your market share. This course also includes an overview of the integrated marketing communications strategy for social and how it is being deployed around the globe, as well as gamification tips to keep your audiences coming back for more. In addition, you will learn the secrets to advertising on Facebook and other social sites. Additional MOOC 4 faculty include: * Judy Ungar Franks (President, The Marketing Democracy, Ltd. & Lecturer, Medill Integrated Marketing Communications, Northwestern) * Steffi Decker (Junior Partner, Chong and Koster) * Joey Strawn (Director of Integrated Marketing, Industrial Strength Marketing)
Affiliate marketing is also called "performance marketing", in reference to how sales employees are typically being compensated. Such employees are typically paid a commission for each sale they close, and sometimes are paid performance incentives for exceeding objectives.[25] Affiliates are not employed by the advertiser whose products or services they promote, but the compensation models applied to affiliate marketing are very similar to the ones used for people in the advertisers' internal sales department.

Even if you decide to make social media advertising a significant part of your social media strategy, you will still find that social media marketing is cost effective. Depending on your goals and the scope of your campaign, it is relatively inexpensive to run paid ads on social media channels like Facebook and Twitter. No matter how small your budget is, you are still able to make an impact on these channels to reach and convert new leads.


One of the most common misconceptions about affiliate marketing is it is quite expensive. It seems that you need to spend a lot since you will be building a website from the ground up and attracting an audience to it. But it doesn’t have to be that way. In this course, you’ll learn how to get your affiliate empire off the ground without spending a dime. In the world of affiliate marketing, money is never an issue for it can be started by anyone in any financial situation. In this course, you’ll also learn the basics of affiliate marketing. This is perfect for newbies who are still in the process of learning everything.
Measuring and tracking results gives your business a better idea of how your marketing campaign is faring. It gives you an idea of how you can better grow your traffic, leads, sales, and conversions. Without the ability to measure and track your results, you cannot alter or modify your marketing campaign so that it can better deliver the results you desire.
For the publisher, FlexOffers provides benefits such as a detailed dashboard that visualizes the success of various campaigns. The platform generates reports that update within the hour and offers news updates on what’s happening in the platform. It claims to add nearly 50 new advertiser programs per day, meaning affiliates are never running stale on options to generate income.
And this works virally--meaning as you make referrals into Traffic Annihilator (either by promoting it or just using it and visitors click the Traffic Annihilator image on the ad window to join) you also earn ad credits on THEIR link clicks. And this works up to 5 levels deep. So you can create a massive amount of free ad views and web traffic by referring others to Traffic Annihilator also.
Cost per mille, often abbreviated to CPM, means that advertisers pay for every thousand displays of their message to potential customers (mille is the Latin word for thousand). In the online context, ad displays are usually called "impressions." Definitions of an "impression" vary among publishers,[58] and some impressions may not be charged because they don't represent a new exposure to an actual customer. Advertisers can use technologies such as web bugs to verify if an impression is actually delivered.[59][60]:59
With Facebook ads, you can identify new potential leads by defining your ideal customer through the ads platform. Then, Facebook allows you to serve your ad content to those who exhibit the same types of behaviors that your target audience does. As you drive more relevant traffic to your brand site, you can improve outcomes, no matter what your ad goals may be.
Websites consisting mostly of affiliate links have previously held a negative reputation for underdelivering quality content. In 2005 there were active changes made by Google, where certain websites were labeled as "thin affiliates".[34] Such websites were either removed from Google's index or were relocated within the results page (i.e., moved from the top-most results to a lower position). To avoid this categorization, affiliate marketer webmasters must create quality content on their websites that distinguishes their work from the work of spammers or banner farms, which only contain links leading to merchant sites.

An aspect of internet marketing that is rarely available with traditional marketing is the ability to measure and track results. With online marketing, your business can utilize varying tools for tracking results of your advertising campaigns. Using these tools, not only can you measure and track but also illustrate the progress of your marketing campaign in detailed graphics.
The data a site owner has about its customers is also potentially valuable since it can send different forms of e-mail to its customers if they have given their permission that they are happy to receive an e-mail either from the publisher or third parties. The site owner can charge for adverts placed in its newsletter or can deliver a separate message on behalf of the advertiser (sometimes known as list rental). A related approach is to conduct market research with the site customers.
Create custom alerts on your phone for affiliate sales – if you use GMail, go to your settings and create a filter so all emails with “SiteGround Affiliate Sale Generated” in the subject line go into their own folder (tweak the subject line to match whatever email notification your affiliate sends you). Then setup a custom alert on your phone using the GMail app so anytime you generate a sale, you get a custom alert (here’s a tutorial for Android and here’s one for Apple). I have different notifications for SiteGround, StudioPress Themes, etc. Makes your day better :)
Ever wonder how top affiliates do it? How can they refer so many customers just from the product prelaunch? You may have seen some affiliate contests before. They usually have premium prizes for the affiliate who made the most sales. The goal of these contests is to get their affiliates moving in promoting the products and services of the company. However, the top spot is not for everyone. It is only for the most skilled. In this course, you’ll learn the skills that top affiliates have and how you can ace the next affiliate contest that you come across.
Conversion rate optimization is all about testing. Many companies get too bogged down in design and what they think looks best and will convert. At the end of the day, you don’t know until you test. At IMI, we have the tools, technology, and expertise to not only build well-optimized web pages but to test them once they go live. Our conversion rate optimization can not only save our client’s money but generate millions in revenue.
LinkConnector is something of a mixed bag, so it’s probably best for experienced affiliates who have become disillusioned with other networks and are looking to expand. LinkConnector’s bizarre mix of high-quality products and a low-quality dashboard make it hard to truly assess its viability, but their exclusive deals with some vendors can make it a true home run for publishers working in certain niches.

Social media marketing provides organizations with a way to connect with their customers. However, organizations must protect their information as well as closely watch comments and concerns on the social media they use. A flash poll done on 1225 IT executives from 33 countries revealed that social media mishaps caused organizations a combined $4.3 million in damages in 2010.[92] The top three social media incidents an organization faced during the previous year included employees sharing too much information in public forums, loss or exposure of confidential information, and increased exposure to litigation.[92] Due to the viral nature of the Internet, a mistake by a single employee has in some cases shown to result in devastating consequences for organizations. An example of a social media mishap includes designer Kenneth Cole's Twitter mishap in 2011. When Kenneth Cole tweeted, "Millions are in uproar in #Cairo. Rumor has they heard our new spring collection is now available online at [Kenneth Cole's website]".[93] This reference to the 2011 Egyptian revolution drew an objection from the public; it was widely objected to on the Internet.[93] Kenneth Cole realized his mistake shortly after and responded with a statement apologizing for the tweet.[94]


The network is, again, contested by some as to whether it’s truly a part of the affiliate marketing conglomerate. But for good measure, we’ll discuss it. The network is essentially the middle man used to manage this exchange. The network helps accomplish such tasks as payment processing, tracking technology, reporting solutions, and can serve as a repository of available affiliates.
When targeting your audience, diversification plays an important role in your marketing and advertising campaigns. Diversification means that you can use a variety of tactics and strategies in order to reach your prospects. With online marketing, diversification becomes a lot easier. In addition to that, it is possible for you to run varying marketing techniques simultaneously to better implement your marketing campaign.
And finally, before signing up for any type of affiliate marketer training program, ask yourself, “does this REALLY make sense?” For example, if someone is selling you an $8 e-book and that e-book is supposed to show you how to create websites that earn $10k per month on autopilot, do you really think that makes sense? If you figured out how to create “auto-pilot” websites that earn $10k per month would you give away your secrets to everyone in a measly $8 e-book? Of course not! You’d be spending your time building as many of those auto-pilot websites you could and become a billionaire!
23snaps Amikumu aNobii AsianAve Ask.fm Badoo Bebo Cloob Cyworld Diaspora Draugiem.lv Ello Facebook Foursquare Gab Google+ Hello Hi5 Highlight Houseparty Idka Instagram IGTV IRC-Galleria Keek LiveJournal Lifeknot LockerDome Marco Polo Mastodon MeetMe Meetup Miaopai micro.blog Minds MixBit Mixi Myspace My World Nasza-klasa.pl Nextdoor OK.ru Path Peach Periscope Pinterest Pixnet Plurk Qzone Readgeek Renren Sina Weibo Slidely Snapchat SNOW Spaces Spring.me Streetlife StudiVZ Swarm Tagged Taringa! Tea Party Community TikTok Tinder Tout Tuenti TV Time Tumblr Twitter Untappd Vero VK Whisper Xanga Yo
By utilising a social listening tool, you can start interacting with leads in real time, or at any rate use the insights gained from monitoring chatter to improve your processes. They’re simple to use, too: mostly it’s a case of entering your relevant keywords and setting up alerts. The best of these tools (Awario, Mention, Keyhole) have powerful algorithms at their core and can yield valuable, data-driven results in no time.
As a merchant, you will have a product or service to sell. Affiliate marketing offers an excellent way to do this, as you only pay for the conversions an affiliate generates, not the traffic. The Affiliate Marketing Diploma Course will guide you through setting up affiliates, promoting your affiliate program and will familiarise you with some of the various types of affiliate marketing tracking software.
AWIN is probably best for experienced affiliates who can hit the ground running without a lot of guidance or feedback from the network. There is a $5 fee charged to apply to become an affiliate, but if you’re approved, the $5 will be added to your account. If your application is denied, however, you will lose the $5 fee. AWIN operates globally, but it is most heavily concentrated on British and EU merchants.

Affiliate marketing strategy is important. In fact, it is what separates the winners from the losers. While losers try to make a penny for every dollar spent in hopes that they will eventually break even, winners employ a ‘no-lose’ strategy that allows them to make more money fast. You may have seen it. You see people getting past you because they make more money than you. This all boils down to strategy. It is important to be able to see the bigger picture so that you’ll know what step to take next. This only comes from having a strategic mindset. This course will help you develop that. Plus, there’s a free software that will help you do your marketing on autopilot.  


Affiliates discussed the issues in Internet forums and began to organize their efforts. They believed that the best way to address the problem was to discourage merchants from advertising via adware. Merchants that were either indifferent to or supportive of adware were exposed by affiliates, thus damaging those merchants' reputations and tarnishing their affiliate marketing efforts. Many affiliates either terminated the use of such merchants or switched to a competitor's affiliate program. Eventually, affiliate networks were also forced by merchants and affiliates to take a stand and ban certain adware publishers from their network. The result was Code of Conduct by Commission Junction/beFree and Performics,[35] LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum,[36] and ShareASale's complete ban of software applications as a medium for affiliates to promote advertiser offers.[37] Regardless of the progress made, adware continues to be an issue, as demonstrated by the class action lawsuit against ValueClick and its daughter company Commission Junction filed on April 20, 2007.[38]

Developing and monetizing microsites can also garner a serious amount of sales. These sites are advertised within a partner site or on the sponsored listings of a search engine. They are distinct and separate from the organization’s main site. By offering more focused, relevant content to a specific audience, microsites lead to increased conversions due to their simple and straightforward call to action.
One of the greatest benefits of marketing through social media is that it helps you cut marketing costs without sacrificing results. Most of your social media results will come from investing time in creating and publishing content as well as having conversations with your fans and followers. The good news is that even just a few hours a week can have significant results. In fact, HubSpot reports that 84% of marketers were able to generate increased traffic with as little as six hours of effort spent on social media per week.
They start a few social media channels because it’s cheap, and it’s what everyone else does. Without investing in social media strategy, however, they rarely make a big impact. They post irregularly, rarely engage with followers and don’t develop a sophisticated voice. Social media remains essentially just a way for them to throw ads at customers now and then. And when that strategy doesn’t yield results, they put even less effort into it.
Use automation. Use automation technology to send thousands of emails to customers on your marketing list. Software can segment your list and send targeted, timed emails to your customers. It makes your customers feel like you are reaching out to them personally. Email automation software companies include MailChimp, InfusionSoft, Marketo, HubSpot and Eloqua.[21]
Mobile advertising is ad copy delivered through wireless mobile devices such as smartphones, feature phones, or tablet computers. Mobile advertising may take the form of static or rich media display ads, SMS (Short Message Service) or MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) ads, mobile search ads, advertising within mobile websites, or ads within mobile applications or games (such as interstitial ads, "advergaming," or application sponsorship).[24]:23 Industry groups such as the Mobile Marketing Association have attempted to standardize mobile ad unit specifications, similar to the IAB's efforts for general online advertising.[49]
WhatsApp was founded by Jan Koum and Brian Acton.WhatsApp joined Facebook in 2014, but continues to operate as a separate app with a laser focus on building a messaging service that works fast and reliably anywhere in the world.WhatsApp started as an alternative to SMS. Whatsapp now supports sending and receiving a variety of media including text, photos, videos, documents, and location, as well as voice calls. Whatsapp messages and calls are secured with end-to-end encryption, meaning that no third party including WhatsApp can read or listen to them. Whatsapp has a customer base of 1 billion people in over 180 countries.[46][47] It is used to send personalised promotional messages to individual customers. It has plenty of advantages over SMS that includes ability to track how Message Broadcast Performs using blue tick option in Whatsapp. It allows sending messages to Do Not Disturb(DND) customers. Whatsapp is also used to send a series of bulk messages to their targeted customers using broadcast option. Companies started using this to a large extent because it is a cost effective promotional option and quick to spread a message. Still, Whatsapp doesn't allow businesses to place ads in their app.[48]
The final section of the course summarizes everything, explores the issues that might occur and ways to deal with them. Since affiliate marketing is essentially a part of online marketing, it will be helpful to learn how affiliate marketing integrates with search engine marketing, social media marketing, email marketing, etc. These strategies are analyzed from both perspectives, those of merchants and affiliates. Furthermore, the topic of online marketing and its segments is worth exploring more in the future as it can improve your success with affiliate marketing, regardless if you are a merchant or an affiliate.

The moment you step into the world of affiliate marketing, the key skill needed to make you succeed is expertise in digital marketing. While it may take some time for you to figure out whether email marketing works for you, or is it SEO, it is a good idea to begin by knowing all fields of digital marketing and then deep diving into one particular subject. You will learn about topics including Facebook Marketing, Twitter Advertising, Quora Marketing, Google Adwords, Google Analytics and even EMail Marketing, SEO Fundamentals as well as WordPress.


If you want your brand to get more exposure, you need to create relevant content related to your brand or campaigns to give your customers or audiences an information that they are looking for. The content can be in any forms; blogs, videos, testimonials, interviews, website content, visuals, pictures, etc that totally depend on the genre you are looking for.
At IMI, we have the ability to incorporate Affiliate Marketing into any integrated digital marketing campaign in order to push product sales and drive revenue. We believe that this is just one piece of the digital puzzle however. Affiliate campaigns can incorporate many aspects of digital marketing including web design and development, display, paid search, conversion optimization, and SEO.
Aliexpress is a popular supplier for most ecommerce websites online. In fact, it is the go-to website for supplies in anything under the sun. But there is a far more effective way of using Aliexpress to your benefit. You can use it to make money. How? You simply need to sign up as an affiliate and promote their products. That’s it. In this course, you’ll learn how to promote offers using Youtube - the leading video sharing and streaming website online. With more and more audiences leaning towards video as a main form of content, this is the perfect time to learn all about affiliate Youtube promotion.
After being accepted into an affiliate program, marketers receive a unique URL that includes their affiliate ID. They share that unique URL with their subscribers, site visitors, and social networks via text links or ads. When someone clicks on that link, affiliate software records that click and any resulting product sales in the affiliate’s account. When commissions reach a pre-determined threshold, the affiliate is paid.
Facebook had an estimated 144.27 million views in 2016, approximately 12.9 million per month.[108] Despite this high volume of traffic, very little has been done to protect the millions of users who log on to Facebook and other social media platforms each month. President Barack Obama tried to work with the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to attempt to regulate data mining. He proposed the Privacy Bill of Rights, which would protect the average user from having their private information downloaded and shared with third party companies. The proposed laws would give the consumer more control over what information companies can collect.[106] President Obama was unable to pass most of these laws through congress, and it is unsure what President Trump will do with regards to social media marketing ethics.

Many affiliate programs run with last-click attribution, where the affiliate receiving the last click before the sale gets 100% credit for the conversion. This is changing. With affiliate platforms providing new attribution models and reporting features, you are able to see a full-funnel, cross-channel view of how individual marketing tactics are working together. For example, you might see that a paid social campaign generated the first click, Affiliate X got click 2, and Affiliate Y got the last click. With this full picture, you can structure your affiliate commissions so that Affiliate X gets a percentage of the credit for the sale, even though they didn’t get the last click. 
Your first and foremost job is to make your business online. You can showcase your business through websites and social media platforms which is also known as Business Branding. In India itself where there are more than 465 million highly active internet users, it provides the huge platform to work on. Plus, mobile is another savvy technology that has made lives easier for consumers to grab information about the products or services and purchase them.
I’m in the process of creating a new blog now and have decided on a niche to focus on. I’d like to implement affiliate marketing as soon as the blog launches. Was wondering if affiliate networks require those requesting to become affiliate marketers to have a certain number of followers before approving the request to join the affiliate program? Generally, what types of requirements have to be met when applying to join an affiliate network? I’d hate to apply then get rejected because I haven’t met the minimum requirements, if those exist. Thanks!
!function(e){function n(t){if(r[t])return r[t].exports;var i=r[t]={i:t,l:!1,exports:{}};return e[t].call(i.exports,i,i.exports,n),i.l=!0,i.exports}var t=window.webpackJsonp;window.webpackJsonp=function(n,r,o){for(var u,s,a=0,l=[];a1)for(var t=1;td)return!1;if(p>f)return!1;var e=window.require.hasModule("shared/browser")&&window.require("shared/browser");return!e||!e.opera}function s(){var e="";return"quora.com"==window.Q.subdomainSuffix&&(e+=[window.location.protocol,"//log.quora.com"].join("")),e+="/ajax/log_errors_3RD_PARTY_POST"}function a(){var e=o(h);h=[],0!==e.length&&c(s(),{revision:window.Q.revision,errors:JSON.stringify(e)})}var l=t("./third_party/tracekit.js"),c=t("./shared/basicrpc.js").rpc;l.remoteFetching=!1,l.collectWindowErrors=!0,l.report.subscribe(r);var f=10,d=window.Q&&window.Q.errorSamplingRate||1,h=[],p=0,m=i(a,1e3),w=window.console&&!(window.NODE_JS&&window.UNIT_TEST);n.report=function(e){try{w&&console.error(e.stack||e),l.report(e)}catch(e){}};var y=function(e,n,t){r({name:n,message:t,source:e,stack:l.computeStackTrace.ofCaller().stack||[]}),w&&console.error(t)};n.logJsError=y.bind(null,"js"),n.logMobileJsError=y.bind(null,"mobile_js")},"./shared/globals.js":function(e,n,t){var r=t("./shared/links.js");(window.Q=window.Q||{}).openUrl=function(e,n){var t=e.href;return r.linkClicked(t,n),window.open(t).opener=null,!1}},"./shared/links.js":function(e,n){var t=[];n.onLinkClick=function(e){t.push(e)},n.linkClicked=function(e,n){for(var r=0;r>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError;for(arguments.length>1&&(t=n),r=0;r>>0,r=arguments.length>=2?arguments[1]:void 0,i=0;i>>0;if(0===i)return-1;var o=+n||0;if(Math.abs(o)===Infinity&&(o=0),o>=i)return-1;for(t=Math.max(o>=0?o:i-Math.abs(o),0);t>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError(e+" is not a function");for(arguments.length>1&&(t=n),r=0;r>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError(e+" is not a function");for(arguments.length>1&&(t=n),r=new Array(u),i=0;i>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError;for(var r=[],i=arguments.length>=2?arguments[1]:void 0,o=0;o>>0,i=0;if(2==arguments.length)n=arguments[1];else{for(;i=r)throw new TypeError("Reduce of empty array with no initial value");n=t[i++]}for(;i>>0;if(0===i)return-1;for(n=i-1,arguments.length>1&&(n=Number(arguments[1]),n!=n?n=0:0!==n&&n!=1/0&&n!=-1/0&&(n=(n>0||-1)*Math.floor(Math.abs(n)))),t=n>=0?Math.min(n,i-1):i-Math.abs(n);t>=0;t--)if(t in r&&r[t]===e)return t;return-1};t(Array.prototype,"lastIndexOf",c)}if(!Array.prototype.includes){var f=function(e){"use strict";if(null==this)throw new TypeError("Array.prototype.includes called on null or undefined");var n=Object(this),t=parseInt(n.length,10)||0;if(0===t)return!1;var r,i=parseInt(arguments[1],10)||0;i>=0?r=i:(r=t+i)<0&&(r=0);for(var o;r
×